Most have experienced moments when causeless drowsiness, malaise, chronic illnesses, and colds occur. But it is worth understanding that nothing happens just like that – everything has its own explanation.
The state of health directly depends on how effectively the protective functions function, and if they are not able to overcome problems, there is a drop in human immunity.
To destroy the invading alien, the immune system produces a specific type of cell – antibodies that can bind to the antigen, recognize the “code” and destroy it.
In a healthy person, it is immune not only to infections, microbes, bacteria, but also to foreign organisms that do not have the same genetic code as the human body. Immunity, from a biological point of view, maintains an optimal constancy of the environment inside the body and protects against external harmful factors, including protozoan helminths.
In short, immunity is a system that does not allow infections and bacteria to penetrate, as well as a way to protect against the development of dangerous pathologies – oncology, inflammatory and autoimmune processes. It is for this reason that on wounds, scratches, abrasions, places of operations and other affected areas, there is a rapid healing, recovery from illnesses.
There are two types – innate and acquired immunity.
Innate immunity, which is also called species, genetic, hereditary, natural, we get from our parents, those from ours, etc. This type of protection against a number of pathogens is characteristic of a certain type of animal world. Congenital is also divided into two types.
- Individual: inherent in individual individuals, species, while the rest are sensitive to a specific pathogen.
- Specific: common to all members of a given species, can be absolute or relative.
With the absolute occurrence of a certain disease is impossible under any circumstances. Relative is possible under favorable conditions – age, overheating, hypothermia, etc. It is worth pointing out that innate immunity factors are more often inherent in adults; in newborns, it is usually absent.
Natural resistance is not only a species trait, it can be manifested by individual breeds, populations, and even ancestral lines.
Acquired – this is the body’s ability to resist certain pathogens that it encounters during life, is not inherited. Acquired naturally is divided into active and passive types of immunity.
- Active – manifests itself after the body carries the disease, therefore it is also called post-infection. It persists for several years, and in a number of individuals throughout life. An immune response to a pathogen is possible when small doses of it enter the body for a long time. Thus, hidden immunization or immunizing subinfection occurs.
- Passive develops due to the intake of antibodies into the baby’s body through the placenta in the womb – placental, or breast milk – colostral. Thanks to this type, the body’s immunity to the pathogen persists for several months, then acquired immunity comes into play.
How immunity works
Since childhood, we know that the immune system protects our body from the penetration of infections, microbes, pathogens.
Also here can be attributed the harmful effects of the external environment – cold, heat, ultraviolet radiation, protozoan helminths. But, we have little idea what is the role of the immune system inside the human body. It can be rightly called a “orderly”, “garbage collector”, without which existence is simply impossible.
Organs of the immune system
To find out in detail what immunity is and how to increase it, you should study the entire immune system, which includes cells, organs, lymphatics.
Members of the symbiosis:
- Lymphatic system (nodules are soft, oval tissue formations with a high content of lymphocytes).
- Thymus gland – the thymus is located behind the sternum, lymphoid cells multiply here.
- Tonsils are small formations of lymphoid tissue on the pharyngeal walls.
- Bone marrow – a tissue with a porous structure resembling a sponge, located inside flat or tubular bones, produces blood cells – erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
- Lymphoid formations in the intestines (Peyer’s patches) – located on the walls of the appendix, participate in the circulation of the ducts connecting the lymph nodes.
- The spleen is a large lymph node-like organ designed to filter blood flow, store blood cells, and produce lymphocytes. Located under the left ribs next to the stomach.
- Lymph is a colorless liquid with a high content of lymphocytes, flowing through the vessels.
- Lymphocytes. These cells are also called the “soldiers” of immunity, since it is they who destroy any pathogen that invades the human body or has formed inside – diseased cells that cause oncology, autoimmune processes, inflammation, etc.
Among the lymphocytes there are B and T-lymphocytes. Together with other cells of the immune system, they create a protective barrier, while type T teaches you to distinguish your cells from strangers at an early stage in the development of immunity, in childhood. The process occurs in the thymus gland, and upon reaching adolescence, activity decreases.
Reasons for reduced immunity
There are a number of factors that are beyond our control, as well as reasons that directly depend on our behavior.
- Smoking – carcinogens that affect the body at the cellular level enter the body. The particles are modified and turn into free radicals, leading not only to a fall in the immune system, but also to oncological, infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune processes.
- Improper nutrition – fatty, smoked, sweet, starchy foods containing a lot of fast carbohydrates, salt leads to disruption of the digestive tract, which is involved in the formation and maintenance of immunity at an optimal level. Plus, a heavy meal destroys the liver, which is an organ for filtering blood and excreting toxins from the body.
- Alcohol – alkaloids destroy the work of the entire gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys. Plus, they cause pathological deformations of cells, including immune ones.
- Inactivity – an inactive lifestyle inhibits metabolic processes – cell renewal. Plus, blood circulation is inhibited, stagnant processes occur that poison the body and create a load on the immune system.
- Stress – nervous experiences, depression, conflicts cause an imbalance in the hormonal sphere – the level of production of cortisol, which suppresses testosterone and estrogen, decreases. Such a background causes a drop in immunity.
- Bad sleep, insomnia – the body does not have time to accumulate strength, recover after a hard day. For this reason, an insufficient amount of melatonin is produced, without which the immune system is not able to produce the optimal number of white blood cells, the main participants in the immune system.
- Ultraviolet rays – prolonged exposure to the open sun, a passion for tanning leads to the destruction of immunity cells.
- Water is the main source of nutrition for cells. Without an optimal amount of fluid, oxygen and other valuable substances cannot be transported.
There is an opinion that excessive consumption of protein through milk, eggs, meat, etc. may be the cause of the fall in immunity.
How to strengthen immunity
To understand how to increase the protective functions of the body, you need to understand that immunity is a system, the relationship of various processes, organs, cells, etc. This means that it is important to abandon habits that harm both the body as a whole and individual organs.
But even if they are eliminated, the state of health remains deplorable, it is necessary to consult a doctor and undergo a detailed examination of the body, to identify dangerous processes that suppress the immune system.
- A healthy lifestyle is a very affordable and important complex, thanks to which you can strengthen immunity and overall health.
- Proper nutrition: fruits, vegetables, seafood, fish, nuts, berries, herbs, etc.
- Rejection of alcohol. The liver is the only organ capable of complete self-healing. It is enough not to drink for three months, as the main filter of the body will be young and healthy again.
- Smoking cessation – this addiction is the cause of many ills that carry a deadly threat to the body, including emphysema, heart attack, stroke, autoimmune processes, lung cancer, etc.
- Normalization of sleep – it is necessary to create all conditions so that the body can rest for at least 6-7 hours.
- The use of decoctions, tinctures and teas from chamomile, nettle, raisins, mint, rose hips.
- Lead an active lifestyle – go swimming, attend fitness, yoga classes, just walk in the fresh air every day, do not gain excess weight and avoid infectious, fungal diseases.
- Control of emotions, it is important to avoid stress. Joy, a cheerful mood contributes to the production of pleasure hormones that activate the body’s defense mechanisms. And this means that the expression: “Smile, Lord, smile!” has not only philosophical, but also medical significance.