Every person faces the problem of dandruff. This is a disease of the scalp, characterized by a high rate of scaly exfoliation of skin particles over a relatively long time. The disease is a mild clinical form of seborrheic dermatitis.
- Why does dandruff appear
- What types of dandruff exist
- Is it possible to get dandruff through contact with a sick person?
- What are the symptoms of dandruff
- How dangerous is this skin disease
- How to treat dandruff
- Consequences of ignoring the problem
Why does dandruff appear
Dandruff occurs due to excessive and too rapid reproduction of epidermal cells. Often the cause of the disease is the fungus Pityrosporum ovale – these microorganisms live on the skin of every person, but normally develop more slowly.
The development of dandruff is affected by increased activity of the sebaceous glands, which leads to the development of seborrhea. A number of such external factors contribute to the exacerbation of the symptoms of the disease: general weakness of the body, hormonal disorders, improper care (excess of styling products), as well as infrequent hair washing and incomplete shampooing.
Dandruff strikes tired, stressed, and malnourished people – eating high amounts of saturated fat and sugar is the most harmful.
What types of dandruff exist
The disease has several varieties, the type of which can be easily determined by external signs:
- dry dandruff – white dry flakes fall from the head, which are noticeable on dark clothes. Sometimes the disease is accompanied by itching of the scalp and increased hair loss. This can lead to the development of oily dandruff
- oily dandruff is characterized by larger, oily yellow patches. Without treatment, it causes permanent hair loss. Dandruff and seborrhea decrease as baldness progresses. For the treatment of oily dandruff, a specialist consultation is required, who prescribes an ointment containing active substances that have an anti-seborrheic effect. The use of special dandruff shampoos is required – both when it appears, and periodically for preventive purposes, after the symptoms disappear. Additionally, vitamins B, E and A should be added to the diet
- Pityriasis versicolor occurs predominantly on the chest, neck, and back, and is defined by brown or pink patches on the skin. The spots take an irregular shape with an area of about 3–4 mm and eventually merge. Treatment is with an antifungal agent with imidazole
- erythema – the disease affects mainly men. This is a mild form of the disease, which can be identified by dark red or brown spots on the thighs and around the scrotum
- white dandruff – this variety is found mainly in children and adolescents. The species is determined by itchy white spots around the face and limbs.
Is it possible to get dandruff through contact with a sick person?
Fungal infections are infectious diseases and yeast-like fungus plays an important role in the formation of dandruff, can cause and exacerbate the symptoms of seborrheic and atopic dermatitis. You can contract the fungus indirectly by sharing combs, combs, hats, or sleeping on the same pillow.
Dandruff is difficult to deal with and the condition tends to recur, especially in patients who treat the disease only until the symptoms disappear. It is important to carry out treatment strictly according to the recommendations of a specialist. Diagnosis begins with a consultation and a detailed examination, followed by the selection of the necessary procedures.
For the treatment of mild forms of dandruff, shampoos, lotions and anti-dandruff emulsions are used, containing the following active substances: magnesium pyritonate, salicylic acid, selenium sulfide, climbazole or zinc.
Peeling of the epidermis is common for many people and the appearance of flakes of dry white skin on dark clothes should be alarming. Throughout life, everyone can experience a disease that leads to the appearance of white, oily or pink skin lesions (Gilbert’s rash). Another common disease is versicolor versicolor that requires treatment.
What are the symptoms of dandruff
With a dry form of the disease, dry skin plates peel off and leave white flakes, which are removed with shampoos or using castor oil. With a fatty type of disease, spots may appear on the head, leading to baldness. In the pink variety of Gilbert, inflorescences appear on the legs. Also, multi-colored lichen is a disease that develops on the chest.
If the condition of dry skin persists for a long time, you need to start treatment and purchase an anti-dandruff shampoo to get rid of white or oily spots. Home remedies for drying the epidermis will also be useful.
Another form of the disease is Gilbert’s pink dandruff. Exfoliation of the epidermis leads to the formation of spots. As a rule, it is necessary to apply special ointments in the places of occurrence of lesions. You can get rid of itching and dryness with home remedies (for example, wipe the skin with milk), as well as use medicated shampoos.
How dangerous is this skin disease
There are times when home remedies and shampoo are not enough, and dry or oily spots begin to affect other parts of the body, versicolor develops. Red spots are visible around the chest and back, this case requires special treatment.
Shampoo for pityriasis versicolor may not be enough, it is still necessary to start treatment and use drugs aimed at alleviating the symptoms of this type of disease.
How to treat dandruff
The scalp is a particularly sensitive area that is exposed to numerous irritants and external factors that directly affect the condition of the hair and skin. The imbalance in the work of its mechanisms is visible to the naked eye and indicates the development of pathology. Each symptom that occurs requires a comprehensive thorough examination.
Dandruff is one of the most common diseases in the trichology department. This is a painless, non-contagious phenomenon with a chronic and seasonal course.
Prompt intervention in case of detection or diagnosis of a disease is necessary not only for aesthetic reasons, but also to prevent baldness. Dandruff treatment methods are based on local treatment, the use of specialized preparations: lotions, shampoos, emulsions, extracts.
These drugs have the following effect:
- restoring the natural protective barrier
Treatment of dry dandruff is based on the use of mild preparations needed to restore the damaged protective barrier of the epidermis. It is necessary to eliminate violations of its permeability, increase the amount of lipids, while maintaining their unique and natural composition.
Active ingredients contained in medicines must not cause skin irritation. Aggressive detergents are prohibited, they only exacerbate the existing problem. The nutrition aspect is very important, you need to carefully analyze the diet and include the missing ingredients in it. The right diet should focus on:
- limiting the consumption of low-value processed foods
- foods rich in vitamin F, B6, A (liver, wheat germ, chicken eggs, cabbage)
- micronutrients – calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium
- foods rich in omega-3s such as avocados, fish, oils, sunflower seeds, flaxseeds
- drinking plenty of water.
Also important aspects of the treatment of dandruff include:
- avoidance of stress, stimulants
- physical activity.
How to treat dandruff at home
Without the right choice of drugs for home use, the chances of fixing the problem are close to zero. The following scheme should be observed: cleansing – the initial removal of scales, washing the scalp with shampoo, activation – an action that prevents relapse.
Before the washing process, it is recommended to use a lotion (based on salicylic, lactic and azelaic acids with a liquid formula), serum or emulsion (containing oils and essential extracts), which have protective and moisturizing functions, prepare the scalp for the washing process and soften the scales.
Be sure to wash your hair only when necessary, not too often and not too infrequently. If you need it every day, then use the shampoo intended for this with a large amount of oils and plant extracts. The scalp should be washed twice, during the second washing, leave the preparation for 2-3 minutes, and then rinse thoroughly with water.
After drying the scalp and hair, a lotion compatible with previously used products is applied, it restores the proper hydro-lipid layer of the skin, pH and prevents the recurrence of dandruff. Such drugs do not need to be washed off and the effect of the treatment is visible even after a single application.
The course of treatment should last about 3 months, with the abolition of all other cosmetics that were used before the onset of the disease, so as not to interfere with the skin regeneration process.
Professional trichological procedures
To quickly remove dry dandruff and restore the protective barrier of the skin, a number of procedures are performed in the trichology room. They differ in the drugs used, because they have completely different active ingredients.
In addition to their medicinal nature, they are a form of aromatherapy due to the content of high quality essential oils and are combined with a relaxing massage that soothes the nerve endings. The procedures last 30-60 minutes. They can be done once a week or every two weeks, usually 6-10 sessions are required.
Procedures performed in special rooms vary depending on the severity of the problem and the expectations of the patient. The process may include washing the scalp using equipment such as oxygen infusion technology. All forms of such treatment are effective. During a visual examination of the scalp and viewing it under the trichoscope, the specialist chooses the appropriate method.
The effect is noticeable after the first procedure, but the recovery process takes longer, so the final result can be seen after 1-3 months of treatment. A series of procedures is recommended to be repeated every 2-3 months. In order for the effects of the treatment of dry dandruff to be maximum (the scalp is properly hydrated, without scales, has a proper hydrolipidic layer and a protective barrier, it does not itch, the sebaceous glands work properly, it is not irritated), such procedures must be combined with the use of professional preparations at home.
How to cure oily dandruff
Treatment of oily dandruff is based on the use of keratolytic, cytostatic and antifungal agents. Ingredients with a keratolytic effect should eliminate the remnants of the epidermis (salicylic acid, sulfur, urea), and cytostatic, antiproliferative substances regulate the process of skin regeneration, antifungal agents (selenium sulfide, zinc pyrithione) inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi.
The general treatment is only for severe forms of oily dandruff. Prompt intervention is essential because oily dandruff is the first step towards seborrheic dermatitis and baldness.
An important aspect in the treatment is a diet that includes foods rich in vitamin F, B6, A (liver, wheat germ, chicken eggs, cabbage), trace elements (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium, as well as zinc ). Stress and stimulants should also be avoided.
Both common dandruff and oily dandruff may return when the patient reverts to old habits or when other irritants are present. Therefore, it is worth introducing proper scalp care into ordinary life, thanks to which the likelihood of relapse will be minimal.
Consequences of ignoring the problem
If you neglect the issue of removing dandruff, it can progress into more serious diseases.
In the case of oily dandruff, it is seborrheic dermatitis. This leads to irreversible hair loss. If the aggressive action is not stopped in the event of ordinary dandruff, this will aggravate the damage to the protective barrier until it is almost completely removed.
Getting rid of it will allow all impurities and microorganisms to get an easy way to penetrate the structure of the hair follicles, which causes irritation, eczema and allergies. Hair becomes dry, brittle and falls out.